God exiled the entire House of Israel to Babylon.
2 Chronicles 36:15-23.
"The Lord, the God of their ancestors, tirelessly sent them messenger after messenger, since he wished to spare his people and his house. But they ridiculed the messengers of God, they despised his words, they laughed at his prophets, until at last the wrath of the Lord rose so high against his people that there was no further remedy.
He summned against them the king of the Babylonians who put their young warriors to the sword within their sanctuary; he spared neither youth nor virgin, neither old man nor aged cripple; God handed them all over to the king of Babylon. All the furnishings of the Temple of God, large and small, the treasures of the Temple of the Lord, the treasures of the king and his officials, he carried everything off to Babylon. They burned down the Temple of God, demolished the walls of Jerusalem, set fire to all its palaces, and destroyed everything of value in it.
The survivors were deported by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon; they were to serve him and his sons until the kingdom of Persia came to power. This is how the word of the Lord was fulfilled that he spoke through Jeremiah, 'Until this land has enjoyed it sabbath rest, until seventy years have gone by, it will keep sabbath throughout the days of its desolation."
And in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, to fulfill the word of the Lord that was spoken through Jeremiah, God roused the spirt of Cyrus king of Persia to issue a proclamation and to have it publicly displayed throughout his kingdom."
"To Babylon you must go and there you will be rescued; there the Lord will ransom you out of the power of your enemies." (Micah 4:10)
"Listen; the king of Babylon came to Jerusalem; he carried away the king and the princes, and took them to where he lives in Babylon. He took a member of the royal family and made a treaty with him...so that the kingdom would remain modest and without ambition and so maintain his treaty faithfully." (Ez.17:12-14)
The "70-year exile to Babylon" was created by God in a treaty made between the king of the Jews (Jesus) and the king of Babylon. The conditions for its inception and termination are described in the Book of Chronicles (see above).
According to these terms, the Diaspora cannot end until the Prince of Persia issues his decree. This edict will not come in the benevolence of Cyrus, in the way that Jesus offered an end to the Diaspora. It will come in the fury of a beast who considers himself to be a god. It will come in the way of the Maccabees (1 Mac.1:41-52).
The Diaspora appears to have ended already. The king of Babylon issued a decree (Jer.42:10-12). The United Nations of Babylon voted to allow the Jewish people to return and rebuild Jerusalem in 1948. Yet this was a decree made outside the auspices of the prince of Persia. It was made by Babylon. The two decrees are different and the Bible makes clear that the operative edict still rests in the words of the second Book of Chronicles. That is because an apostasy is in progress.
This first wave of settlers was allowed to return before the Persian edict because prophecy has allowed it. They have returned under the codicle of Jeremiah who interceded on their behalf with God. Relenting for the sake of Jeremiah, the Lord issued a reprieve from the conditions dictated in the Book of Chronicles. But that reprieve came with strict conditions (Jer.42:1-22; 43:1-13; 44:1-14).
According to prophecy, this first wave, the military settlers of Jeremiah's prophecy, will meet failure and defeat because they don't listen to God. Their end will come in catastrophe because they have violated the two precepts that conditioned their return: no war and no settlements outside the lands the king of Babylon gives to them (Jer.42:10-18).
Footnote - The Persian Decree
The Israeli Settlements in Palestine
'The Last Days of Babylon', Chapter 13, 'Jerusalem Under Seige'
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